|By Michael Kopp||
|September 26, 2012 11:00 AM EDT||
In the past few weeks I visited several Cloud and Big Data conferences that provided me with a lot of insight. Some people only consider the technology side of Big Data technologies like Hadoop or Cassandra. The real driver however is a different one. Business analysts have discovered Big Data technologies as a way to leverage tons of existing data and ask questions about customer behavior and all sorts relationships to drive business strategy. By doing that they are pushing their IT departments to run ever bigger Hadoop environments and ever faster real-time systems.
What's interesting from a technical side is that ad-hoc analytics on existing data is allowed to take some time. However ad-hoc implies people waiting for an answer, meaning we are talking about minutes and not hours. Another interesting insight is that Hadoop environments are never static or standalone. Most companies take in new data on a continuous basis via technologies like flume. This means Hadoop MapReduce jobs need to be able to keep up with the data flow, either by adding more hardware or by optimizing them.
There are multiple drivers to Big Data (actually there are a lot) but the two most important ones are these: Analytics and Technical Need for Speed. Let's look at some of those and the resulting takeaways.
The Value Is in the Insight Not the Volume
The value of Big Data is in the insights that the data can provide, not the sheer volume of it. The reason that more and more companies are keeping all of their log and transaction data is that they want to gain those insights. The sheer size of the data is rather an obstacle to this goal and has been for a long time. With Big Data technologies this value can be harnessed.
Don't Forget That Data Analysts Are People Too
Ad-hoc analytics doesn't have to be instant, but must not take hours either. It was interesting to see that time to result on ad-hoc analytics is considered important. This is because people are doing those queries, and people don't like to wait for hours. But even more important is that business analytics is often an iterative process. Ask a question, check the answer, refine or change the question. Hours long MapReduce jobs are prohibitive to this process.
New Data Is Coming in All the Time
Big Data environments are constantly fed new data. This is not really big news, but I was still surprised by the constant reiteration of this fact. The constant data growth means that ad-hoc queries get either slower over time or need to work on samples. To remedy this, companies are writing, scrubbing and categorizing MapReduce jobs. These jobs basically strip out all the unimportant stuff and put cleansed, streamline easy-to-access data into new files. Instead of executing analytics against raw files, the analyst works on a cleansed data set. The implications are that scrubbing jobs need to be maintained all the time (as data input is changing over time) and they need to be able to keep up with the velocity of the input. MapReduce is not allowed to run for hours, but needs to be quick and iterative.
Big Data Is Not Cheap
While it sounds obvious, it's something that's not talked about by the vendors unless specifically asked. Hadoop requires a lot of hardware and a lot of expertise. Especially the expertise is hard to come by as of yet. While hardware might be cheap (you don't need expensive boxes for Hadoop) the bigger the environment the higher the operational costs. That operational cost is the reason some Hadoop vendors exist on services alone and also why customers are demanding better monitoring and management solutions.
Data Must Be Accessible at Low Latencies to Provide Value
One very interesting fact is that most early adopters that use Hadoop for analytics use it for ad-hoc analytics and not as a traditional warehouse. They use MapReduce to do the heavy lifting that is usually reserved for ETL jobs and put the resulting dimensions in existing data warehouses or into a NoSQL solution like HBase, Cassandra or MongoDB. These solutions provide low latency access semantics and are then integrated in the transactional application world, e.g. to provide recommendations to the end users.
This does not absolve them from optimizing their Hadoop environment where they can, but it gives them the much needed real time access that Hadoop so far does not provide. This also makes for additional complexity that needs to be maintained and monitored.
NoSQL Solutions Need Management and Monitoring as Well
NoSQL solutions are most often used to provide low latency databases with failover and horizontal scaling characteristics. As expected, practitioners quickly run into new issues like distribution and wrong access patterns. Most NoSQL solutions lack sophisticated monitoring or performance analysis tools and require experts instead. Fortunately several companies are working on providing those tools and some APM vendors work hard to support NoSQL databases similar to normal databases. This is emphasized by another interesting finding: With a fast and scalable data storage, the application itself quickly becomes the response time and scaling bottleneck.
Applications Using NoSQL Technologies Are More Complex
Most NoSQL solutions surrender more complex logic like joins in order to achieve horizontally scalable data distribution. That logic is moved to the application - arguably this is where it should be anyway. NoSQL solutions require data to be stored in a query access optimized way - de-normalization is the key. The flip side of storing data multiple times and the need to keep it in sync on updates, is that the storage logic again becomes more complex. More application logic usually means less performance.
My conclusion as a performance engineer is relatively clear: Big Data requires Performance Management and Monitoring Tools to fulfill its promise in a cost effective and timely manner. Here are some suggestions on what you should think about when you start a Big Data project.
- Large Hadoop environments are hard to manage and operate. Without automation in terms of deployment, operations, monitoring and root cause analysis they quickly become unmanageable. Make sure to have a monitoring solution in place that informs you pro-actively of any infrastructure or software issues that would affect your operation. It needs to give you an easy way to pinpoint the root cause.
- The easiest way to identify new performance issues is to detect and analyze change. Adopt a life cycle and 24/7 production APM approach. It will enable you to notice changes in data and compute distribution over time. In addition a life cycle approach will allow you to immediately pin point any negative changes introduced by a new software release.
- Don't just throw more and more hardware at the problem. While you can use cheaper hardware for Hadoop, it's still cost. But more than that you have to consider the operational drag. Every node you add will make traditional log based analysis more complicated. Instead ensure that you have an APM solution in place that lets you understand and optimize MapReduce jobs at their core and reduce both the time and resources it takes to run them.
- Your Hadoop cluster is no island, but will always be connected in some form or the other to a real time or at least transactional system. Make sure that you have a monitoring solution in place that can support both.
NoSQL applications tend to have more complex logic. The very performance and scalability of the store depends on correct data access and data distribution. An good monitoring solution allows you to monitor and optimize that additional complexity with ease; it also enables you to understand how your application access the data and how that access is distributed across your NoSQL cluster in your production system. The best way to ensure a scalable and fast NoSQL store is to ensure optimal distribution and access patterns.
Big Data is still very much an emerging technology and its promises are huge. But in order to deliver on those promises it must be cost and time effective to those that harness its value - The Business and not just technology experts.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is about the digitization of physical assets including sensors, devices, machines, gateways, and the network. It creates possibilities for significant value creation and new revenue generating business models via data democratization and ubiquitous analytics across IoT networks. The explosion of data in all forms in IoT requires a more robust and broader lens in order to enable smarter timely actions and better outcomes. Business operations become the key driver of IoT applications and projects. Business operations, IT, and data scientists need advanced analytics t...
Aug. 28, 2015 12:30 AM EDT Reads: 327
With the proliferation of connected devices underpinning new Internet of Things systems, Brandon Schulz, Director of Luxoft IoT – Retail, will be looking at the transformation of the retail customer experience in brick and mortar stores in his session at @ThingsExpo. Questions he will address include: Will beacons drop to the wayside like QR codes, or be a proximity-based profit driver? How will the customer experience change in stores of all types when everything can be instrumented and analyzed? As an area of investment, how might a retail company move towards an innovation methodolo...
Aug. 27, 2015 06:15 PM EDT Reads: 380
As more and more data is generated from a variety of connected devices, the need to get insights from this data and predict future behavior and trends is increasingly essential for businesses. Real-time stream processing is needed in a variety of different industries such as Manufacturing, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Finance, Online Retail, Smart Grids, and Healthcare. Azure Stream Analytics is a fully managed distributed stream computation service that provides low latency, scalable processing of streaming data in the cloud with an enterprise grade SLA. It features built-in integration with Azur...
Aug. 27, 2015 05:45 PM EDT
WebRTC has had a real tough three or four years, and so have those working with it. Only a few short years ago, the development world were excited about WebRTC and proclaiming how awesome it was. You might have played with the technology a couple of years ago, only to find the extra infrastructure requirements were painful to implement and poorly documented. This probably left a bitter taste in your mouth, especially when things went wrong.
Aug. 27, 2015 02:45 PM EDT Reads: 377
As more intelligent IoT applications shift into gear, they’re merging into the ever-increasing traffic flow of the Internet. It won’t be long before we experience bottlenecks, as IoT traffic peaks during rush hours. Organizations that are unprepared will find themselves by the side of the road unable to cross back into the fast lane. As billions of new devices begin to communicate and exchange data – will your infrastructure be scalable enough to handle this new interconnected world?
Aug. 27, 2015 02:15 PM EDT
SYS-CON Events announced today that IceWarp will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. IceWarp, the leader of cloud and on-premise messaging, delivers secured email, chat, documents, conferencing and collaboration to today's mobile workforce, all in one unified interface
Aug. 27, 2015 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 324
Too often with compelling new technologies market participants become overly enamored with that attractiveness of the technology and neglect underlying business drivers. This tendency, what some call the “newest shiny object syndrome,” is understandable given that virtually all of us are heavily engaged in technology. But it is also mistaken. Without concrete business cases driving its deployment, IoT, like many other technologies before it, will fade into obscurity.
Aug. 27, 2015 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 284
Consumer IoT applications provide data about the user that just doesn’t exist in traditional PC or mobile web applications. This rich data, or “context,” enables the highly personalized consumer experiences that characterize many consumer IoT apps. This same data is also providing brands with unprecedented insight into how their connected products are being used, while, at the same time, powering highly targeted engagement and marketing opportunities. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Nathan Treloar, President and COO of Bebaio, will explore examples of brands transforming their businesses by t...
Aug. 27, 2015 11:30 AM EDT
SYS-CON Events announced today that Micron Technology, Inc., a global leader in advanced semiconductor systems, will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Micron’s broad portfolio of high-performance memory technologies – including DRAM, NAND and NOR Flash – is the basis for solid state drives, modules, multichip packages and other system solutions. Backed by more than 35 years of technology leadership, Micron's memory solutions enable the world's most innovative computing, consumer,...
Aug. 27, 2015 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 121
Through WebRTC, audio and video communications are being embedded more easily than ever into applications, helping carriers, enterprises and independent software vendors deliver greater functionality to their end users. With today’s business world increasingly focused on outcomes, users’ growing calls for ease of use, and businesses craving smarter, tighter integration, what’s the next step in delivering a richer, more immersive experience? That richer, more fully integrated experience comes about through a Communications Platform as a Service which allows for messaging, screen sharing, video...
Aug. 27, 2015 06:15 AM EDT Reads: 514
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pythian, a global IT services company specializing in helping companies leverage disruptive technologies to optimize revenue-generating systems, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Founded in 1997, Pythian is a global IT services company that helps companies compete by adopting disruptive technologies such as cloud, Big Data, advanced analytics, and DevOps to advance innovation and increase agility. Specializing in designing, imple...
Aug. 26, 2015 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 158
Akana has announced the availability of the new Akana Healthcare Solution. The API-driven solution helps healthcare organizations accelerate their transition to being secure, digitally interoperable businesses. It leverages the Health Level Seven International Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (HL7 FHIR) standard to enable broader business use of medical data. Akana developed the Healthcare Solution in response to healthcare businesses that want to increase electronic, multi-device access to health records while reducing operating costs and complying with government regulations.
Aug. 26, 2015 07:00 AM EDT
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
Aug. 3, 2015 06:45 PM EDT Reads: 778
For IoT to grow as quickly as analyst firms’ project, a lot is going to fall on developers to quickly bring applications to market. But the lack of a standard development platform threatens to slow growth and make application development more time consuming and costly, much like we’ve seen in the mobile space. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Weiner, Product Manager of the Omega DevCloud with KORE Telematics Inc., discussed the evolving requirements for developers as IoT matures and conducted a live demonstration of how quickly application development can happen when the need to comply wit...
Aug. 2, 2015 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 538
The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – transforming information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. IoE creates new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented opportunities to improve business and government operations, decision making and mission support capabilities.
Aug. 1, 2015 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 468
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems, described how to revolutionize your archit...
Jul. 30, 2015 07:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,557
MuleSoft has announced the findings of its 2015 Connectivity Benchmark Report on the adoption and business impact of APIs. The findings suggest traditional businesses are quickly evolving into "composable enterprises" built out of hundreds of connected software services, applications and devices. Most are embracing the Internet of Things (IoT) and microservices technologies like Docker. A majority are integrating wearables, like smart watches, and more than half plan to generate revenue with APIs within the next year.
Jul. 30, 2015 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 268
Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Opening Keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Sandy Carter, IBM General Manager Cloud Ecosystem and Developers, and a Social Business Evangelist, d...
Jul. 30, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,215
In his keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Rodney Rogers, CEO of Virtustream, discussed the evolution of the company from inception to its recent acquisition by EMC – including personal insights, lessons learned (and some WTF moments) along the way. Learn how Virtustream’s unique approach of combining the economics and elasticity of the consumer cloud model with proper performance, application automation and security into a platform became a breakout success with enterprise customers and a natural fit for the EMC Federation.
Jul. 30, 2015 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,308
The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
Jul. 29, 2015 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,437