Welcome!

Open Web Authors: Carmen Gonzalez, Mark R. Hinkle, Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, PR.com Newswire

Related Topics: Open Web, Wireless, SOA & WOA, Virtualization, Web 2.0, Cloud Expo

Open Web: Blog Feed Post

Android Encrypted Databases

Encryption as a security topic is perhaps the weakest link in that community

The Android development community, as might be expected, is a pretty vibrant community with a lot of great contributors helping people out. Since Android is largely based upon Java, there is a lot of skills reusability between the Java client dev community and the Android Dev community.

As I mentioned before, encryption as a security topic is perhaps the weakest link in that community at this time. Perhaps, but since that phone/tablet could end up in someone else’s hands much more easily than your desktop or even laptop, it is something that needs a lot more attention from business developers.

When I set out to write my first complex app for Android, I determined to report back to you from time-to-time about what needed better explanation or intuitive solutions. Much has been done in the realm of “making it easier”, except for security topics, which still rank pretty low on the priority list. So using encrypted SQLite databases is the topic of this post. If you think it’s taking an inordinate amount of time for me to complete this app, consider that I’m doing it outside of work. This blog was written during work hours, but all of the rest of the work is squeezed into two hours a night on the nights I’m able to dedicate time. Which is far from every night.

For those of you who are not developers, here’s the synopsis so you don’t have to paw through code with us: It’s not well documented, but it’s possible, with some caveats. I wouldn’t use this method for large databases that need indexes over them, but for securing critical data it works just fine. At the end I propose a far better solution that is outside the purview of app developers and would pretty much have to be implemented by the SQLite team.

Okay, only developers left? Good.

In my research, there were very few useful suggestions for designing secure databases. They fall into three categories:

  1. Use the NDK to write a variant of SQLite that encrypts at the file level. For most Android developers this isn’t an option, and I’m guessing the SQLite team wouldn’t be thrilled about you mucking about with their database – it serves a lot more apps than yours.
  2. Encrypt the entire SD card through the OS and then store the DB there. This one works, but slows the function of the entire tablet/phone down because you’ve now (again) mucked with resources used by other apps. I will caveat that if you can get your users to do this, it is the currently available solution that allows indices over encrypted data.
  3. Use one of several early-beta DB encryption tools. I was uncomfortable doing this with production systems. You may feel differently, particularly after some of them have matured.

I didn’t like any of these options, so I did what we’ve had to do in the past when a piece of data was so dangerous in the wrong hands it needed encrypting. I wrote an interface to the DB that encrypts and decrypts as data is inserted and removed. In Android the only oddity you won’t find in other Java environments – or you can more easily get around in other Java environments – is filling list boxes from the database. For that I had to write a custom provider that took care of on-the-fly decryption and insertion to the list.

My solution follows. There are a large varieties of ways that you could solve this problem in Java, this one is where I went because

  1. I don’t have a lot of rows for any given table.
  2. The data does not need to be indexed.

If either of these items is untrue for your implementation, you’ll either have to modify this implementation or find an alternate solution.

So first the encryption handler. Note that in this sample, I chose to encode encrypted arrays of bytes as Strings. I do not guarantee this will work for your scenario, and suggest you keep them as arrays of bytes until after decryption. Also note that this sample was built from a working one by obfuscating what the actual source did and making some modifications for simplification of example. It was not tested after the final round of simplification, but should be correct throughout.

package com.company.monitor;

import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec;

import android.util.Base64;

public class DBEncryptor {
private static byte[] key;
private static String cypherType = cypherType;

public DBEncryptor(String localPass) {

// save the encoded key for future use
// - note that this keeps it in memory, and is not strictly safe
key = encode(localPass.getBytes()).getBytes();
String keyCopy = new String(key);
while(keyCopy.length() < 16)
keyCopy = keyCopy + keyCopy;

byte keyA[] = keyCopy.getBytes();
if(keyA.length > 16)
key = System.arraycopy(keyA, 0, key, 0, 16);
}

public String encode(byte [] s) {

return Base64.encodeToString(s, Base64.URL_SAFE);
}

public byte[] decode(byte[] s) {
return Base64.decode(s, Base64.URL_SAFE);
}


public byte[] getKey() {
// return a copy of the key.
return key.clone();
}

public String encrypt(String toEncrypt) throws Exception {

//Create your Secret Key Spec, which defines the key transformations
SecretKeySpec skeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(key, cypherType);

//Get the cipher
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(cypherType);

//Initialize the cipher
cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, skeySpec);

//Encrypt the string into bytes
byte[ ] encryptedBytes = cipher.doFinal(toEncrypt.getBytes());

//Convert the encrypted bytes back into a string
String encrypted = encode(encryptedBytes);

return encrypted;
}

public String decrypt(String encryptedText) throws Exception {

// Get the secret key spec
SecretKeySpec skeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(key, cypherType);

// create an AES Cipher
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(cypherType);

// Initialize it for decryption
cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, skeySpec);

// Get the decoded bytes
byte[] toDecrypt = decode(encryptedText.getBytes());

// And finally, do the decryption.
byte[] clearText = cipher.doFinal(toDecrypt);

return new String(clearText);
}
}

So what we are essentially doing is base-64 encoding the string to be encrypted, and then encrypting the base-64 value using standard Java crypto classes. We simply reverse the process to decrypt a string. Note that this class is also useful if you’re storing values in the Properties file and wish them to be encrypted, since it simply operates on strings.

The value you pass in to create the key needs to be something that is unique to the user or tablet. When it comes down to it, this is your password, and should be treated as such (hence why I changed the parameter name to localPass).

For seasoned Java developers, there’s nothing new on Android at this juncture. We’re just encrypting and decrypting data.

Next it does leave the realm of other Java platforms because the database is utilizing SQLite, which is not generally what you’re writing Java to outside of Android. Bear with me while we go over this class.

The SQLite database class follows. Of course this would need heavy modification to work with your database, but the skeleton is here. Note that not all fields have to be encrypted. You can mix and match, no problems at all. That is one of the things I like about this solution, if I need an index for any reason, I can create an unencrypted field of a type other than blob and index on it.

package com.company.monitor;

import android.content.ContentValues;
import android.content.Context;
import android.database.Cursor;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteDatabase;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteDatabase.CursorFactory;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteOpenHelper;

public class DBManagernames extends SQLiteOpenHelper {
public static final String TABLE_NAME = "Map";
public static final String COLUMN_ID = "_id";
public static final String COLUMN_LOCAL = "Local";
public static final String COLUMN_WORLD = "World";


private static int indexId = 0;
private static int indexLocal = 1;
private static int indexWorld = 2;

private static final String DATABASE_NAME = "Mappings.db";
private static final int DATABASE_VERSION = 1;

// SQL statement to create the DB
private static final String DATABASE_CREATE = "create table "
+ TABLE_NAME + "(" + COLUMN_ID
+ " integer primary key autoincrement, " + COLUMN_LOCAL
+ " BLOB not null, " + COLUMN_WORLD +" BLOB not null);";

public DBManagernames(Context context, CursorFactory factory) {
super(context, DATABASE_NAME, factory, DATABASE_VERSION);

}

@Override
public void onCreate(SQLiteDatabase db) {
db.execSQL(DATABASE_CREATE);


}

@Override
public void onUpgrade(SQLiteDatabase db, int oldVersion, int newVersion) {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
// Yeah, this isn't implemented in production yet either. It's low on the list, but definitely "on the list"

}

// Assumes DBEncryptor was used to convert the fields of name before calling insert
public void insertToDB(DBNameMap name) {
ContentValues cv = new ContentValues();

cv.put(COLUMN_LOCAL, name.getName().getBytes());
cv.put(COLUMN_WORLD, name.getOtherName().getBytes());

getWritableDatabase().insert(TABLE_NAME, null, cv);
}

// returns the encrypted values to be manipulated with the decryptor.   
public DBNameMap readFromDB(Integer index) {

SQLiteDatabase db = getReadableDatabase();
DBNameMap hnm = new DBNameMap();
Cursor cur = null;
try {
cur = db.query(TABLE_NAME, null, "_id='"+index.toString() +"'", null, null, null, COLUMN_ID);
// cursors connsistently return before the first element. Move to the first.
cur.moveToFirst();
byte[] name = cur.getBlob(indexLocal);
byte [] othername = cur.getBlob(indexWorld);

hnm = new DBNameMap(new String(name), new String(othername), false);
} catch(Exception e) {
System.out.println(e.toString());
// Do nothing - we want to return the empty host name map.
}
return hnm;

}

// NOTE: This routine assumes "String name" is the encrypted version of the string.   
public DBNameMap getFromDBByName(String name) {
SQLiteDatabase db = getReadableDatabase();
Cursor cur = null;
String check = null;
try {
// Note - the production version of this routine actually uses the "where" field to get the correct
// element instead of looping the table. This is here for your debugging use.
cur = db.query(TABLE_NAME, null, null, null, null, null, null);
for(cur.moveToFirst();(!cur.isLast());cur.moveToNext()) {
check = new String(cur.getBlob(indexLocal));
if(check.equals(name))
return new DBNameMap(check, new String(cur.getBlob(indexWorld)), false);

}
if(cur.isLast())
return new DBNameMap();

return new DBNameMap(cur.getString(indexLocal), cur.getString(indexWorld), false);
} catch(Exception e) {
System.out.println(e.toString());
return new DBNameMap();
}

}


// used by our list adapter - coming next in the blog.
public Cursor getCursor() {
try {

return getReadableDatabase().query(TABLE_NAME, null, null, null, null, null, null);
} catch(Exception e) {
System.out.println(e.toString());
return null;
}
}

// This is used in our list adapter for mapping to fields.
public String[] listColumns() {
return new String[] {COLUMN_LOCAL};
}


}

I am not including the DBNameMap class, as it is a simple container that has two string fields and maps one name to another.

Finally, we have the List Provider. Android requires that you populate lists with a provider, and has several base ones to work with. The problem with the SimpleCursorAdapter is that it assumes an unencrypted database, and we just invested a ton of time making the DB encrypted. There are several possible solutions to this problem, and I present the one I chose here. I extended ResourceCursorAdapter and implemented decryption right in the routines, leaving not much to do in the list population section of my activity but to assign the correct adapter.

package com.company.monitor;

import android.content.Context;
import android.database.Cursor;
import android.view.LayoutInflater;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.ViewGroup;
import android.widget.ResourceCursorAdapter;
import android.widget.TextView;

public class EncryptedNameAdapter extends ResourceCursorAdapter {

private String pw;

public EncryptedHostNameAdapter(Context context, int layout, Cursor c,
boolean autoRequery) {
super(context, layout, c, autoRequery);
}

public EncryptedHostNameAdapter(Context context, int layout, Cursor c,
int flags) {
super(context, layout, c, flags);
}

// This class must know what the encryption key is for the DB before filling the list,
// so this call must be made before the list is populated. The first call after the constructor works.
public void setPW(String pww) {
pw = pww;
}


@Override
public View newView(Context context, Cursor cur, ViewGroup parent) {
LayoutInflater li = (LayoutInflater) context.getSystemService(Context.LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE);
return li.inflate(R.layout.my_list_entry, parent, false);
}

@Override
public void bindView(View arg0, Context arg1, Cursor arg2) {
// Get an encryptor/decryptor for our data.
DBEncryptor enc = new DBEncryptor(pw);

// Get the TextView we're placing the data into.
TextView tvLocal = (TextView)arg0.findViewById(R.id.list_entry_name);
// Get the bytes from the cursor
byte[] bLocal = arg2.getBlob(arg2.getColumnIndex(DBManagerNames.COLUMN_LOCAL ));
// Convert bytes to a string
String local = new String(bSite);

try {
// decrypt the string
local = enc.decrypt(local);
} catch(Exception e) {
System.out.println(e.toString());

// local holds the encrypted version at this point, fix it.

// We’ll return an empty string for simplicity
local = new String();  
}
tvSite.setText(local);
}

}

The EncryptedNameAdapter can be set as the source for any listbox just like most examples set an ArrayAdapter as the source. Of course, it helps if you’ve put some data in the database first Winking smile.

That’s it for this time. There’s a lot more going on with this project, and I’ll present my solution for SSL certificate verification some time in the next couple of weeks, but for now if you need to encrypt some fields of a database, this is one way to get it done. Ping me on any of the social media outlets or here in the comments if you know of a more elegant/less resource intensive solution, always up for learning more.

And please, if you find an error, it was likely introduced in the transition to something I was willing to throw out here publicly, but let me know so others don’t have problems. I’ve done my best not to introduce any, but always get a bit paranoid if I changed it after my last debug session – and I did to simplify and sanitize.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Don MacVittie

Don MacVittie is Founder of Ingrained Technology, LLC, specializing in Development, Devops, and Cloud Strategy. Previously, he was a Technical Marketing Manager at F5 Networks. As an industry veteran, MacVittie has extensive programming experience along with project management, IT management, and systems/network administration expertise.

Prior to joining F5, MacVittie was a Senior Technology Editor at Network Computing, where he conducted product research and evaluated storage and server systems, as well as development and outsourcing solutions. He has authored numerous articles on a variety of topics aimed at IT professionals. MacVittie holds a B.S. in Computer Science from Northern Michigan University, and an M.S. in Computer Science from Nova Southeastern University.

@ThingsExpo Stories

SUNNYVALE, Calif., Oct. 20, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Spansion Inc. (NYSE: CODE), a global leader in embedded systems, today added 96 new products to the Spansion® FM4 Family of flexible microcontrollers (MCUs). Based on the ARM® Cortex®-M4F core, the new MCUs boast a 200 MHz operating frequency and support a diverse set of on-chip peripherals for enhanced human machine interfaces (HMIs) and machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. The rich set of periphera...

The Internet of Things (IoT) is making everything it touches smarter – smart devices, smart cars and smart cities. And lucky us, we’re just beginning to reap the benefits as we work toward a networked society. However, this technology-driven innovation is impacting more than just individuals. The IoT has an environmental impact as well, which brings us to the theme of this month’s #IoTuesday Twitter chat. The ability to remove inefficiencies through connected objects is driving change throughout every sector, including waste management. BigBelly Solar, located just outside of Boston, is trans...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Matrix.org has been named “Silver Sponsor” of Internet of @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Matrix is an ambitious new open standard for open, distributed, real-time communication over IP. It defines a new approach for interoperable Instant Messaging and VoIP based on pragmatic HTTP APIs and WebRTC, and provides open source reference implementations to showcase and bootstrap the new standard. Our focus is on simplicity, security, and supporting the fullest feature set.
Predicted by Gartner to add $1.9 trillion to the global economy by 2020, the Internet of Everything (IoE) is based on the idea that devices, systems and services will connect in simple, transparent ways, enabling seamless interactions among devices across brands and sectors. As this vision unfolds, it is clear that no single company can accomplish the level of interoperability required to support the horizontal aspects of the IoE. The AllSeen Alliance, announced in December 2013, was formed with the goal to advance IoE adoption and innovation in the connected home, healthcare, education, aut...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Red Hat, the world's leading provider of open source solutions, will exhibit at Internet of @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Red Hat is the world's leading provider of open source software solutions, using a community-powered approach to reliable and high-performing cloud, Linux, middleware, storage and virtualization technologies. Red Hat also offers award-winning support, training, and consulting services. As the connective hub in a global network of enterprises, partners, a...
The only place to be June 9-11 is Cloud Expo & @ThingsExpo 2015 East at the Javits Center in New York City. Join us there as delegates from all over the world come to listen to and engage with speakers & sponsors from the leading Cloud Computing, IoT & Big Data companies. Cloud Expo & @ThingsExpo are the leading events covering the booming market of Cloud Computing, IoT & Big Data for the enterprise. Speakers from all over the world will be hand-picked for their ability to explore the economic strategies that utility/cloud computing provides. Whether public, private, or in a hybrid form, clo...
Software AG helps organizations transform into Digital Enterprises, so they can differentiate from competitors and better engage customers, partners and employees. Using the Software AG Suite, companies can close the gap between business and IT to create digital systems of differentiation that drive front-line agility. We offer four on-ramps to the Digital Enterprise: alignment through collaborative process analysis; transformation through portfolio management; agility through process automation and integration; and visibility through intelligent business operations and big data.
The Transparent Cloud-computing Consortium (abbreviation: T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data processing High speed and high quality networks, and dramatic improvements in computer processing capabilities, have greatly changed the nature of applications and made the storing and processing of data on the network commonplace.
Be Among the First 100 to Attend & Receive a Smart Beacon. The Physical Web is an open web project within the Chrome team at Google. Scott Jenson leads a team that is working to leverage the scalability and openness of the web to talk to smart devices. The Physical Web uses bluetooth low energy beacons to broadcast an URL wirelessly using an open protocol. Nearby devices can find all URLs in the room, rank them and let the user pick one from a list. Each device is, in effect, a gateway to a web page. This unlocks entirely new use cases so devices can offer tiny bits of information or simple i...
Things are being built upon cloud foundations to transform organizations. This CEO Power Panel at 15th Cloud Expo, moderated by Roger Strukhoff, Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo conference chair, will address the big issues involving these technologies and, more important, the results they will achieve. How important are public, private, and hybrid cloud to the enterprise? How does one define Big Data? And how is the IoT tying all this together?
The Internet of Things (IoT) is going to require a new way of thinking and of developing software for speed, security and innovation. This requires IT leaders to balance business as usual while anticipating for the next market and technology trends. Cloud provides the right IT asset portfolio to help today’s IT leaders manage the old and prepare for the new. Today the cloud conversation is evolving from private and public to hybrid. This session will provide use cases and insights to reinforce the value of the network in helping organizations to maximize their company’s cloud experience.
TechCrunch reported that "Berlin-based relayr, maker of the WunderBar, an Internet of Things (IoT) hardware dev kit which resembles a chunky chocolate bar, has closed a $2.3 million seed round, from unnamed U.S. and Switzerland-based investors. The startup had previously raised a €250,000 friend and family round, and had been on track to close a €500,000 seed earlier this year — but received a higher funding offer from a different set of investors, which is the $2.3M round it’s reporting."
The Industrial Internet revolution is now underway, enabled by connected machines and billions of devices that communicate and collaborate. The massive amounts of Big Data requiring real-time analysis is flooding legacy IT systems and giving way to cloud environments that can handle the unpredictable workloads. Yet many barriers remain until we can fully realize the opportunities and benefits from the convergence of machines and devices with Big Data and the cloud, including interoperability, data security and privacy.
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. Over the summer Gartner released its much anticipated annual Hype Cycle report and the big news is that Internet of Things has now replaced Big Data as the most hyped technology. Indeed, we're hearing more and more about this fascinating new technological paradigm. Every other IT news item seems to be about IoT and its implications on the future of digital busines...
Cultural, regulatory, environmental, political and economic (CREPE) conditions over the past decade are creating cross-industry solution spaces that require processes and technologies from both the Internet of Things (IoT), and Data Management and Analytics (DMA). These solution spaces are evolving into Sensor Analytics Ecosystems (SAE) that represent significant new opportunities for organizations of all types. Public Utilities throughout the world, providing electricity, natural gas and water, are pursuing SmartGrid initiatives that represent one of the more mature examples of SAE. We have s...
The Internet of Things needs an entirely new security model, or does it? Can we save some old and tested controls for the latest emerging and different technology environments? In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Davi Ottenheimer, EMC Senior Director of Trust, will review hands-on lessons with IoT devices and reveal privacy options and a new risk balance you might not expect.
IoT is still a vague buzzword for many people. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Mike Kavis, Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Partners, will discuss the business value of IoT that goes far beyond the general public's perception that IoT is all about wearables and home consumer services. The presentation will also discuss how IoT is perceived by investors and how venture capitalist access this space. Other topics to discuss are barriers to success, what is new, what is old, and what the future may hold.
Swiss innovators dizmo Inc. launches its ground-breaking software, which turns any digital surface into an immersive platform. The dizmo platform seamlessly connects digital and physical objects in the home and at the workplace. Dizmo breaks down traditional boundaries between device, operating systems, apps and software, transforming the way users work, play and live. It supports orchestration and collaboration in an unparalleled way enabling any data to instantaneously be accessed on any surface, anywhere and made interactive. Dizmo brings fantasies as seen in Sci-fi movies such as Iro...
There’s Big Data, then there’s really Big Data from the Internet of Things. IoT is evolving to include many data possibilities like new types of event, log and network data. The volumes are enormous, generating tens of billions of logs per day, which raise data challenges. Early IoT deployments are relying heavily on both the cloud and managed service providers to navigate these challenges. In her session at 6th Big Data Expo®, Hannah Smalltree, Director at Treasure Data, to discuss how IoT, Big Data and deployments are processing massive data volumes from wearables, utilities and other mach...
This Internet of Nouns trend is still in the early stages and many of our already connected gadgets do provide human benefits over the typical infotainment. Internet of Things or IoT. You know, where everyday objects have software, chips, and sensors to capture data and report back. Household items like refrigerators, toilets and thermostats along with clothing, cars and soon, the entire home will be connected. Many of these devices provide actionable data - or just fun entertainment - so people can make decisions about whatever is being monitored. It can also help save lives.