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10 « ex bonnes pratiques » à abandonner et... 10 bonnes résolutions pour 2014. Deuxième partie : postes de travail

 

Poubelle 10 %22ex best practices%22Dans la première partie de cette série de billets, j’ai présenté les 10 « ex bonnes pratiques » à abandonner en 2014.

Comme l’on fait remarquer de nombreux commentaires, l’important, après le diagnostic, c’est de définir les « nouvelles bonnes pratiques ».

Dans cette deuxième partie, je vais aborder les trois NBP, « Nouvelles Bonnes Pratiques », qui remplacent les trois anciennes « ex » 1, 2 et 3 :

  • Postes de travail obèses.
  • Master PC. 
  • Suites bureautiques obèses.

 

Un navigateur, point d’entrée universel sur le Système d’Information

NBP 1 : A partir de 2014, toute application nouvelle déployée dans l’entreprise devra être accessible par un navigateur moderne.

Les entreprises innovantes ont compris cela depuis longtemps, et disposent aujourd’hui d’un parc important d’applications auxquelles tous les clients de l’entreprise, internes ou externes, peuvent accéder depuis un navigateur.

Browsers Europe 1:2014Les tendances sur les navigateurs se confirment : en Europe, les trois leaders, Chrome, Firefox et Internet Explorer représentent 90 % des parts de marché, Safari étant en 4e position avec environ 6 %.

Dans la majorité des entreprises, grandes et moyennes, il reste encore beaucoup d’applications métiers en mode Client/Serveur ou même en interface mode caractère, et pour lesquelles des solutions « n-tiers » permettant un accès navigateur n’ont pas été mises en œuvre.

Workspaces AWSA court terme, une démarche pragmatique permettant de gérer la transition vers un S.I. 100 % navigateur consiste à déployer une solution de VDI, Virtual Desktop Infrastructure.
Les nouvelles solutions VDI, telles que celles proposées par AWS avec Workspaces, dont j’ai parlé récemment, permettent de réduire un peu le coût de cette démarche.

L’OS sous-jacent aura de moins en moins d’importance, jusqu’à devenir, progressivement, un élément mineur du poste de travail, son rôle principal étant de donner la parole à des navigateurs.

Dans les 12 à 18 mois, les améliorations des standards Web, tels que WebRTC pour les communications synchrones ou HTML5 permettront aux entreprises de proposer à leurs clients, externes et internes, un Système d’Information 100 % navigateur. C’est déjà possible aujourd’hui, en ce début d’année 2014, ce sera généralisé en 2016.

En résumé :

  • Toutes les applications proposées par l’entreprise sont accessibles depuis un navigateur.
  • Les quatre navigateurs principaux, Chrome, Firefox, IE et Safari sont acceptés, dans leurs dernières versions.

 

Variété des objets d’accès mobiles

Le choix d’un accès navigateur aux applications ouvre une voie royale à la deuxième nouvelle bonne pratique :

NBP 2 : les clients internes de l’entreprise peuvent choisir le poste de travail qui leur convient.

Liberté postes de travailCe choix peut être très large : un PC, une tablette ou un smartphone, et en toute indépendance vis-à-vis du système d’exploitation de ce dernier.

Evantail solutions postes travailPour mettre en œuvre cette deuxième bonne pratique, les entreprises ont le choix entre deux démarches principales :

  • Elles proposent un catalogue, un éventail de solutions, parmi lesquelles les clients internes font leur marché. Pour les aider dans leurs choix, il suffit de fixer pour chacun d’entre eux un coût d’usage mensuel et de le refacturer dans le budget de leur direction.
  • Mettre en œuvre un projet AVOP (Apportez Vos Outils Personnels), BYOD en anglais. En pratique, cela signifie qu’un collaborateur fait lui-même le choix de son poste de travail, le finance, le maintient, l’assure... C’est ce qui se passe aujourd’hui avec les voitures des collaborateurs, dans un monde professionnel où la « voiture de fonction » est devenue une exception. Demain, le « PC de fonction » deviendra aussi rare !

En résumé :

  • Des objets d’accès mobiles sont proposés en priorité ; les « PC de bureau » sont installés par exception, pour des usages spécifiques.
  • Toutes les familles d’objets d’accès mobiles, PC, Macintosh, tablettes, smartphones ou autres à venir (Google Glass, montres intelligentes...) sont autorisées dans l’entreprise.
  • Le système d’exploitation des objets d’accès n’est pas un critère de choix ou d’exclusion ; Android, ChromeOS, FirefoxOS, iOS, MacOS, Windows (sous toutes ces formes) ... sont des options acceptées.

 

Usages : outils bureautiques, « Cloud » et Collaboratifs

Cloud-collaborationQuelles sont les seules applications auxquelles on peut accéder depuis n’importe quel poste de travail, quel que soit sa nature ou son système d’exploitation ? Les applications natives Web, ce qui permet de formuler la troisième nouvelle bonne pratique :

NBP 3 : les outils universels de collaboration et de communication sont des applications Cloud.

Pour les entreprises, cela représente un changement majeur dans les habitudes de travail du milliard de personnes qui utilisent encore aujourd’hui les outils historiques de Microsoft, Office, Exchange, Sharepoint ou d’IBM, Lotus Notes.

Cloud Business email Radicati Group MQLa bataille pour la maîtrise de ce nouveau marché gigantesque va être homérique, entre l’ancien, Microsoft, et le nouveau, Google, comme le montre clairement cette analyse faite par le groupe Radicali ; tous les autres acteurs ont été définitivement distancés.

J’ai écrit de nombreux textes sur ce sujet, le premier et le plus détaillé il y aura bientôt 3 ans, mais mes conclusions de l’époque restent encore pour l’essentiel valides aujourd’hui. 

En 2014, les entreprises ont le choix entre deux solutions fondamentalement différentes :

  • Google Apps, la seule alternative professionnelle véritablement SaaS, Software as a Service, multi-tenant, proposée par un seul fournisseur, Google, et dont 100 % des fonctionnalités sont accessibles depuis un navigateur sur n’importe quel objet. Google Apps répond très bien aux NBP 1 et NBP 2.
  • Microsoft Office 365, version modernisée d’une solution historique, version hébergée et non SaaS. Office 365 ne répond pas aux règles NBP 1 et NBP 2 ; pour profiter des fonctionnalités haut de gamme de la solution Office 365, il est nécessaire de disposer de la suite Office sur un poste de travail obèse Windows, ce qui nous renvoie aux « ex bonnes pratiques » 1 et 3. Venant de Microsoft, cela n’étonnera personne...

 

Synthèse

Gartner TCO PCCes trois « nouvelles bonnes pratiques » permettent de répondre aux attentes de tous les « stakeholders » :

  • Les clients externes :  les applications proposées par l’entreprise sont accessibles depuis tout objet d’accès équipé d’un navigateur, sans avoir à passer par une place de marché spécifique.
  • Les clients internes à qui, enfin, on va pouvoir laisser la liberté de choisir le ou les postes de travail adaptés à leurs véritables attentes.
  • Les directions informatiques, qui vont arrêter de dépenser des fortunes pour gérer un « Master » et des postes de travail obèses dont le TCO est proche de 6 000 $/an, dixit Gartner.

Dans la troisième partie, je règlerai son compte à l’ex bonne pratique 4, les clouds privés. 

 

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Louis Nauges

Louis Naugès is Founder & President of Revevol, the first European Consulting organization 100% dedicated to SaaS and Cloud Computing. He has 30 years of IT experience. Very few people in Europe have his knowledge and expertise in Cloud & SaaS technologies and applications. He works directly with CIOs of very large organizations. Revevol is the first EMEA distributor of Google Apps and the largest worldwide organization deploying Google Apps is one of Revevol's clients.

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